BEM Stands for Block Element Modifier, and it’s a methodology used to “speed development process up and ease the teamwork of developers.” This post is going to talk about how to use BEM methodologies specifically in CSS. We’ll start with some definitions.



are part of a block that can not be used outside of it’s block (eg. a menu item can’t be used outside of the menu)


define the appearance and behaviour of a block or an element (eg. The same block looks different due to a modifier)

When to Use Which?

Naming Conventions

Probably the biggest part of BEM CSS is, the naming convention. The goal here, is to make CSS selectors as informative as possible, which helps to make dev and debugging easier

Blocks define the namespace for elements and modifiers



.menu {}
.lang-switcher {}

Elements identify as belonging to a block - delimited by a double underscore “__“



menu__item {}
lang-switcher__lang-icon {}

Modifiers identify as belonging to that block OR element - delimited by a single underscore “_“

The full name for a modifier is created in two different ways (depending on the type of modifier)

When applying a modifier to a block or element, don’t forget to apply the original block/element class as well. This was, your block or element will inherit all of the styles of a normal block or element of it’s kind, and the modifier will then be applied on top.


<div class="menu menu_hidden">...</div>


<div class="menu_hidden">...</div>

Full BEM Example:


<form class="form form_login form_theme_forest">
    <input class="form__input">
    <input class="form__submit form__submit_disabled">


.form {}
.form_theme_forest {}
.form_login {}
.form__input {}
.form__submit {}
.form__submit_disabled {}

Alternate Naming Convention

Harry Roberts’ style


Nesting Elements (Don’t…)

A block can have a nested element structure in a DOM tree, but in BEM, the elements can only be targeted directly from the block. This makes it possible to change the internal DOM structure of the block without modifying any code in an element

What does this mean? Basically, you can put elements inside eachother, but their names will still be based off of the original block. You don’t just keep adding elements after elements.

DOM Tree:

<div class="block">
    <div class="block__elem1">
        <div class="block__elem2">
            <div class="block__elem3"></div>


.block {}
.block__elem1 {}
.block__elem2 {}
.block__elem3 {}

File System

These are a few ways to organize your files when adopting BEM methodologies:

Just CSS - Just Blocks

Put all blocks and block-specific elements and modifiers in separate files that get included in to one css file


Just CSS - A file for everything

Simulate a block structure in your file structure


Put all blocks in their own directory


How BEM affects design

I think this is important to talk about, when discussing BEM on the front end, because alot of this assumes that there is a DRY (don’t repeat yourself) design from the get-go. For example, if a design is all over the place and doesn’t reuse components, I’m not sure that BEM will be very easy to incorporate.

When thinking about parts of a website as modules, style guides are definitely a great place to start. Designers can even create the names of the blocks, elements, and modifiers as names for their layers.

Personally, I’ve yet to use BEM on a project, simply because it hasn’t felt right yet. Obviously, the benefits of BEM are more apparent on large scale sites - which I haven’t done lately.

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